Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 714-7822
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIZT
SGD0.445
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 168-6902
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIZT
SGD0.13
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.83 x 3.43 x 3.68mm
RS Stock No. 145-8772
Mfr. Part No.TS2431AILT
SGD0.181
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 25 V 2.5 V 24 V 3 - - 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.95mm
RS Stock No. 686-4765
Mfr. Part No.TS2431AILT
SGD0.52
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.5 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 25 V 2.5 V 24 V 3 - - 2.9 x 1.3 x 0.95mm
RS Stock No. 907-4700
Mfr. Part No.TL1431ACL5T
SGD0.848
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 36 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 3.05 x 1.75 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 168-7155
Mfr. Part No.TS431ILT
SGD0.283
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 6V SOT-23 Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 30mA - 1.215 V 1.265 V 5 - - 3 x 1.75 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 145-8783
Mfr. Part No.TL431CZ
SGD0.143
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 795-7048
Mfr. Part No.TS4040DILT-2.5
SGD0.79
Each (On a Tape of 25)
units
2.5V SOT-23 Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 15mA - 2.475 V 2.525 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 168-8903
Mfr. Part No.TS432ILT
SGD0.356
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 10V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - 1.24 V 10 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 795-8880
Mfr. Part No.TS3431CILT
SGD0.723
Each (On a Tape of 25)
units
1.24 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.25 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 1.24 V 24 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 165-6542
Mfr. Part No.TS2431ILT
SGD0.212
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 V 24 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 795-8638
Mfr. Part No.TS3431BILT
SGD0.667
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.24 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 1.24 V 24 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 322-3492
Mfr. Part No.TL1431ACZ
SGD0.69
Each
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±0.25 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 714-7825
Mfr. Part No.TL431AIDT
SGD0.44
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 4.9 x 3.9 x 1.25mm
RS Stock No. 714-1105
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACDT
SGD0.403
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - -
RS Stock No. 920-8969
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACZ
SGD0.143
Each (In a Bag of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 714-7831
Mfr. Part No.TL431CZ
SGD0.485
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.7 x 3.7 x 4.4mm
RS Stock No. 165-6500
Mfr. Part No.TS3431CILT
SGD0.274
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
1.24 - 24V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.25 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 1.24 V 24 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.02mm
RS Stock No. 795-7017
Mfr. Part No.TS431ILT
SGD0.783
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
1.24 - 6V SOT-23 Adjustable ±2.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 30mA - 1.215 V 1.265 V 5 - - 3 x 1.75 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 165-8207
Mfr. Part No.TL1431ACL5T
SGD0.433
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 36 V 2.5 V 36 V 5 - - 3.05 x 1.75 x 1.3mm