Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 314-1817
Mfr. Part No.BD140
SGD0.88
Each
units
PNP 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 178-4685
Mfr. Part No.2N4403BU
SGD0.058
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
RS Stock No. 823-1435
Mfr. Part No.LMN200B02-7
SGD0.502
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
NPN + PNP 200 mA 50 V SOT-363 (SC-88) Surface Mount 200 mW N+P Loadswitch -50 V -5 V 200 MHz 6 2 2.2 x 1.35 x 1mm -
RS Stock No. 548-4431
Mfr. Part No.2SC1623-A
SGD0.21
Each
units
NPN 100 mA 50 V MiniMold Surface Mount 200 mW Single 60 V 5 V 250 MHz 3 1 1.3 x 2.9 x 1.5mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 124-1730
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTA
SGD0.055
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.33 x 5.2 x 4.19mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1084
Mfr. Part No.2N4403TFR
SGD0.133
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V 200 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 146-2074
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ABU
SGD0.056
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0313
Mfr. Part No.SS8050CBU
SGD0.349
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1.5 A 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 1 W Single 40 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6074
Mfr. Part No.BD140
SGD0.735
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
PNP 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm -
RS Stock No. 166-2585
Mfr. Part No.SS8050CBU
SGD0.068
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 1.5 A 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 1 W Single 40 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1071
Mfr. Part No.2N4403BU
SGD0.127
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V 200 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 169-8610
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTF
SGD0.064
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0445
Mfr. Part No.2N4403TA
SGD0.315
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 40 V 5 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 169-7397
Mfr. Part No.LMN200B02-7
SGD0.174
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN + PNP 200 mA 50 V SOT-363 (SC-88) Surface Mount 200 mW N+P Loadswitch -50 V -5 V 200 MHz 6 2 2.2 x 1.35 x 1mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0555
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ABU
SGD0.295
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 178-7546
Mfr. Part No.2N4403TFR
SGD0.074
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
RS Stock No. 145-4605
Mfr. Part No.FJP5555TU
SGD1.271
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 5 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 75 W Single 1050 V 14 V - 3 1 10.67 x 4.83 x 16.51mm -
RS Stock No. 803-1087
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTF
SGD0.117
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 922-7740
Mfr. Part No.ZTX753
SGD0.502
Each (In a Bag of 4000)
units
PNP 2 A 100 V E-Line Through Hole 1 W Single 120 V 5 V 140 MHz 3 1 4.01 x 4.77 x 2.41mm -
RS Stock No. 807-0896
Mfr. Part No.FJP5555TU
SGD1.302
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 5 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 75 W Single 1050 V 14 V - 3 1 10.67 x 4.83 x 16.51mm -