Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 781-5222
Mfr. Part No.SMMBT2222ALT1G
SGD0.113
Each (In a Pack of 100)
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NPN 600 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 225 mW Single 75 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 2.64 x 1.11mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 124-1315
Mfr. Part No.KSP2222ABU
SGD0.072
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
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NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 145-5383
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ATA
SGD0.078
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 738-7587
Mfr. Part No.2N2907ADCSM
BrandSemelab
SGD66.79
Each
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PNP 600 mA 60 V LCC 2 Surface Mount 350 mW Isolated -60 V -5 V - 6 2 6.22 x 4.32 x 1.4mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 177-5495
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
SGD27.051
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 178-532
Mfr. Part No.DTA123EKAT146
BrandROHM
SGD0.253
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP - - SMT Surface Mount - Single - - - 3 1 2.9 x 1.6 x 1.1mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 739-0325
Mfr. Part No.SS8550DBU
SGD0.311
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 1.5 A 25 V TO-92 Through Hole 1 W Single -40 V -6 V 200 MHz 3 1 - -
RS Stock No. 801-5619
Mfr. Part No.PBSS4041NT,215
BrandNexperia
SGD0.535
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
NPN 3.8 A 60 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 1.1 W Single 60 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 166-0047
Mfr. Part No.PBSS4041PT,215
BrandNexperia
SGD0.228
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
PNP 2.7 A 60 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 1.1 W Single -60 V -5 V - 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6165
Mfr. Part No.TIP2955
SGD2.552
Each (In a Tube of 30)
units
PNP 15 A 60 V TO-247 Through Hole 90 W Single 100 V - 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 165-9750
Mfr. Part No.PBSS4041NT,215
BrandNexperia
SGD0.228
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 3.8 A 60 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 1.1 W Single 60 V 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 781-6776
Mfr. Part No.PBSS4041PT,215
BrandNexperia
SGD0.54
Each (On a Tape of 50)
units
PNP 2.7 A 60 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 1.1 W Single -60 V -5 V - 3 1 3 x 1.4 x 1.1mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 178-7142
Mfr. Part No.BC847,215
BrandNexperia
SGD0.031
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
RS Stock No. 756-0293
Mfr. Part No.2SC5886A(T6L1,NQ)
BrandToshiba
SGD1.396
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 5 A 50 V DPAK (TO-252) Surface Mount 20 W Single 120 V 9 V - 3 1 6.5 x 5.5 x 2.3mm -
RS Stock No. 799-4753
Mfr. Part No.2SA1943N(S1,E,S)
BrandToshiba
SGD3.686
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
PNP 15 A 230 V TO-3PN Through Hole 150 W Single -230 V -5 V 30 MHz 3 1 15.5 x 4.5 x 20mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6437
Mfr. Part No.BUL128D-B
SGD0.803
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 4 A 400 V TO-220 Through Hole 70 W Single 700 V 9 V - 3 1 9.15 x 10.4 x 4.6mm -
RS Stock No. 545-0450
Mfr. Part No.MMBTA92LT1G
SGD0.247
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
PNP 500 mA 300 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 300 V 5 V 50 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 663-8386
Mfr. Part No.2SB892T-AE
BrandSanyo
SGD0.34
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
PNP 2 A -50 V MP Through Hole 1 W - -60 V -6 V 150 MHz 3 1 6 x 4.7 x 8.5mm -
RS Stock No. 806-2898
Mfr. Part No.MJE180STU
SGD0.651
Each (In a Tube of 60)
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NPN 3 A 40 V TO-126 Through Hole 12.5 W Single 60 V 7 V 0.1 MHz 3 1 8 x 3.25 x 11mm -
RS Stock No. 761-9831
Mfr. Part No.BC556BTA
SGD0.126
Each (In a Pack of 100)
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PNP 100 mA 65 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single -80 V -5 V 150 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -