Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 803-1083
Mfr. Part No.BC547BBU
SGD0.116
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 295-517
Mfr. Part No.ZTX653
SGD1.49
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
NPN 2 A 100 V E-Line Through Hole 1 W Single 120 V 5 V 175 MHz 3 1 4.01 x 4.77 x 2.41mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 761-9828
Mfr. Part No.BC547B
SGD0.467
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 545-0343
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
SGD0.226
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 145-5383
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ATA
SGD0.078
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 177-5499
Mfr. Part No.2N2907ACSM
BrandSemelab
SGD25.211
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
PNP 600 mA 60 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single -60 V -5 V - 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 177-5500
Mfr. Part No.2N2907ADCSM
BrandSemelab
SGD54.671
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
PNP 600 mA 60 V LCC 2 Surface Mount 350 mW Isolated -60 V -5 V - 6 2 6.22 x 4.32 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 793-0753
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
SGD0.061
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 103-2948
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
SGD0.033
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -
RS Stock No. 725-8607
Mfr. Part No.MMBT2222A,215
BrandNexperia
SGD0.20
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V SOT-23 (TO-236AB) Surface Mount 250 mW Single 75 V 6 V - 3 1 1 x 3 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 922-7743
Mfr. Part No.ZTX653
SGD0.502
Each (In a Bag of 4000)
units
NPN 2 A 100 V E-Line Through Hole 1 W Single 120 V 5 V 175 MHz 3 1 4.01 x 4.77 x 2.41mm -
RS Stock No. 738-7584
Mfr. Part No.2N2907ACSM
BrandSemelab
SGD22.33
Each
units
PNP 600 mA 60 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single -60 V -5 V - 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 170-3540
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
SGD0.028
Each (On a Reel of 10000)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0381
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ATA
SGD0.351
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 166-2988
Mfr. Part No.BC547B
SGD0.106
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0385
Mfr. Part No.KSP2222ABU
SGD0.305
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V - 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 896-2625
Mfr. Part No.2SC2712-Y,LF(T
BrandToshiba
SGD0.072
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 150 mA 50 V TO-236MOD Surface Mount 150 mW Single 60 V 5 V 80 MHz 3 1 2.9 x 1.5 x 1.1mm -
RS Stock No. 756-0192
Mfr. Part No.2SA2056(TE85L,F)
BrandToshiba
SGD0.427
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 2 A 50 V TSM Surface Mount 1 W Single -50 V -7 V - 3 1 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.7mm -
RS Stock No. 177-5495
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
SGD27.051
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 738-7587
Mfr. Part No.2N2907ADCSM
BrandSemelab
SGD66.79
Each
units
PNP 600 mA 60 V LCC 2 Surface Mount 350 mW Isolated -60 V -5 V - 6 2 6.22 x 4.32 x 1.4mm -55 °C